SQLite Logo - A feather with the logotype "SQLIte".

SQLite is a portable, fast, ultra-lightweight and full-featured database engine and format. And it’s built into Meadow.OS as a first-class feature.

Using SQLite with SQLite.NET

Explore the Sample App

Rather than low-level database interaction, we recommend using the lightweight SQLite.NET Object-Relational-Mapping (ORM) library to interact with SQLite databases on the device. It has an incredibly simple and powerful API that enables CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) operations via objects, rather than SQL queries and raw data transforms.

This guide should suffice to you up and running, but full documentation can be found at the SQLite.NET GitHub repo.

Add the SQLite.NET-Static Nuget Package

SQLite.NET is available as a Meadow-compatible Nuget package called sqlite-net-static.

NOTE: There are a number of SQLite.NET packages, so make sure to get the correct one.

Configuring the Database

Before using your database, you must first configure it. This is typically done during the application starup.

The following sample code opens a connection to a database called MySqliteDatabase.db in the DataDirectory folder and creates the appropriate tables:

// database files should go in the `DataDirectory`
var databasePath = Path.Combine(MeadowOS.FileSystem.DataDirectory, "MySqliteDatabase.db");
// make the connection
Database = new SQLite.SQLiteConnection(databasePath);
// add table(s)
Database.CreateTable<SensorModel>();

Let’s examine the above code.

Database Files

SQLite database are stored in the file system as a normal file, typically with a .db file-extension, and it’s recommended that you create your database in the DataDirectory available via the MeadowOS.FileSystem API:

var databasePath = Path.Combine(MeadowOS.FileSystem.DataDirectory, "MySqliteDatabase.db");

When using the SQLite.NET library, a database file doesn’t need to explicitly created, the library will do it automatically if it doesn’t exist.

Tables

Tables are mapped to objects and their public fields. For example the following code is a sample model class that represents the data associated with a generic sensor reading:

[Table("SensorReadings")]
public class SensorModel
{
    [PrimaryKey, AutoIncrement]
    public int ID { get; set; }
    public DateTime Timestamp { get; set; }
    public double Value { get; set; }
}

To create a table, call the CreateTable<T> method on the database connection:

Database.CreateTable<SensorModel>();

This call is data safe, if the table already exists, it won’t modify it. Therefore, this code can be executed on every application start.

Table and Column Attributes

There are a number of optional attributes that can be applied to the data model class in order to control how the tables and columns are created. Some of the common ones are as follows:

  • [Table(Name)] - This class attribute specifies the name of the table. If not present, the class name will be used.
  • [Column(name)] - This field attribute specifies the name of the column. If not present, the field name will be used.
  • [PrimaryKey] - Specifies that the field will be used as an integer primary key. Note that composite keys are not supported.
  • [AutoIncremet] - Causes the field to be created as an auto-incrementing column, meaning that each object inserted into the table will have a value incremented from the last inserted.
  • [MaxLength] - Specifies the length of of a string column.
  • [Ignore] - Causes the field to be ignored. If the data type should (or cannot) be stored in the database, this attribute is particularly useful.
  • [Unique] - Ensures that the values in the database column are unique.
  • [Indexed] - Creates an index on the column’s value. Use this if the column is often looked up or searched on, as it will provide faster access.

Data Types

The following table lists the .NET datatypes that are supported by SQLite.NET and their equivalent SQLite datatype:

.NET Datatype SQLite Datatype
int Integer or bigint SQLite types.
bool Integer with the value 1 designated as true while all other values are false.
enum Integer using the enum’s value.
float or double Float
string Varchar with a size specified by the MaxLength attribute. Length defaults to 140.
DateTime Datetime subject to the SQLite precision.
byte[] Blob
Guid Varchar(30)

Adding Data

Calling Insert on the database connection will add a new row to the database into the appropriate table based on the class information:

Database.Insert(new SensorModel { Timestamp = DateTime.Now, Value = SensorValue });

Updating Data

To update a record, first either retrieve or create a new object with a valid primary key, and then called Update on the database connection, passing an object. For example, the following code retreives the first record out of a table, doubles its value, and then saves it back to the database:

// pull the first record out of the table
SensorModel reading = Database.Table<SensorModel>().Take(1).First();
// change the value
reading.Value = reading.Value * 2;
// update the data
Database.Update(reading);

Retreiving Data

There are a number of ways to retreive data from the database.

Via Primary Key

The simplest and fastest way to retrieve a record, is via the primary key, if known. For example, the following code will retrieve a SensorModel with a primary key ID of 1.

var sensorReading1 = Database.Get<SensorModel>(1);

Via LINQ

You can also use LINQ to create a query that will operate on a table. For example, the folowing code queries the SensorModel

var readings = from rows in Database.Table<SensorModel>()
               where rows.Value > 50
               select rows;
Console.WriteLine($"Found {readings.Count()} readings over 50: ");
foreach (var reading in readings) {
    Console.WriteLine($"ID: {reading.ID}, value: {reading.Value}");
}

Deleting Data

To delete data, call the Delete method and pass in the primary key value:

Database.Delete<SensorModel>(1);

Manually Executing SQL Statements

SQLite.NET can also be used to execute raw Transact-SQL (TSQL) statements. For example, the following code returns all records from the SensorReadings table for whom the sensor reading was greater than 50:

var readings = Database.Query<SensorModel>("SELECT * FROM SensorReadings WHERE value > ?", 50);
Console.WriteLine($"Found {readings.Count()} readings over 50: ");
foreach (var reading in readings) {
    Console.WriteLine($"ID: {reading.ID}, value: {reading.Value}");
}

Threading Options

SQLite can be configured to operate in one of three threading modes:

  • Serialized (Default) - This is the default mode. SQLite can be safely used by multiple threads with no restriction.
  • Single-Threaded - When set to single-threaded mode, all internal thread-safety mechanisms are disabled and SQLite is unsafe to use from more than a single thread at any given time.
  • Multi-Threaded - When set to multi-threaded mode, SQLite can be safely used by multiple threads provided that no single database connection is used simultaneously in two or more threads.

The threading mode can be set at runtime, but it should be configured during db setup, before doing any data access. To set, use the SQLite.NET SQLite3.Config API:

SQLite.SQLite3.Config(SQLite3.ConfigOption.MultiThread);

 


These docs are open source. If you find an issue, please file a bug, or send us a pull request. And if you want to contribute, we'd love that too!