Pull-up & Pull-down Resistors
Resistors are used in one of the single-most important and common utility configurations in circuit design; as pull-up and pull-down resistors. Pull-up and pull-down resistors provide a default value (
LOW) in a circuit where otherwise, the circuit might have an indeterminate value part of the time.
To understand the usefulness of this, consider the following button circuit:
Note that the symbol in the center of the circuit represents a common pushbutton:
In this case, when the button is in its default state; not pressed, the value at the input port, 1, is in a floating state, in which it’s neither connected to ground or high, and can actually be indeterminate. In fact, a floating wire (or wire trace on a PCB), acts like an antenna and can pick up interference, giving it a fluctuating voltage signal.
There may not be much power/current in the floating termination, but many modern circuit components react to voltage changes, as opposed to current.
However, a pull-down resistor can be used, which connects the floating wire to
This provides a known, default value of
LOW when the button isn’t pressed.
When then button is pressed, the input at
1 will see a
HIGH signal, even though some current will flow to ground.
A pull-up resistor is much like a pull-down resistor, but provides a default
HIGH value, and can be used when the logic is inverted; as in the following circuit, where the button connects to ground when pressed:
Just as with a pull-down resistor, when the button is pressed, it shorts to ground, so the input at
1 will see a
LOW signal, because any voltage at
1 will sink to ground.
Strong vs. Weak Pulling Resistors
Typically, in modern, power-efficient circuits where the switching components react to voltage, rather than current, the resistance used in pull ups and pull downs is very high,
10kΩ or more, up to millions of Ohms, which allows only a small amount of current to leak.
A lower amount of resistance will exert a stronger “pull” one way or the other, and a higher amount of resistance will exert a weaker pull. For this reason, high value pulling resistors are known as weak pull-downs or pull-ups, and lower value resistors are known as strong pull-ups or pull-downs.
Because of the physical nature of electricity, stronger pull-ups and pull-downs will react also faster than weaker ones.
We’ll examine these considerations more deeply later.
Internal Pull-Ups and Pull-Downs
This is such a common design that many microcontrollers have configurable pull-up and/or pull-down resistors available on inputs. In fact, all the digital inputs on the F7 Meadow board have both pull-ups and pull-downs.
As we’ll examine later, many times a design actually requires a pull-down or pull-up resistor in order to bias, or set a default (AKA preferential) controlling input level in a circuit. This is extremely common when using transistors (electrical switches), to make sure they are either fully